Electronic is the most important element recently. All of its contents containing certain function to human life. Washing machine, refrigerator, air conditioner, remote control, cellular phone has its function as the people need. But, have you ever thought that they need so many little instruments to construct as big as you know? All of the chemical substances require the measurement to get the precise form.
Talking about chemical elements, this is one little instrument that brings any functions on its combination with others. In a chemical study, lead is a main group element, present below tin, in Group 14 of the periodic table, with the symbol Pb and atomic number 82. It is used in construction, batteries, alloys, ammunition, pigments, and various other items.
Lead is a soft, flexible metal which is included in the group of heavy metals. It has a lustrous silver-blue appearance when freshly cut, but darkens to a dull grayish color when exposed to moist air. This occurs due to the immediate formation of an oxide film that protects the metal from further oxidation or corrosion.
Lead is a highly toxic metal found in small amounts in the earth’s crust. Because of its abundance, low cost, and physical properties, lead and lead compounds have been used in a wide variety of products including paint, ceramics, pipes, solders, gasoline, batteries, and cosmetics. Today, the most common sources of lead exposure in the United States are lead-based paint in older homes, contaminated soil, household dust, drinking water, lead crystal, and lead-glazed pottery.
While extreme lead exposure can cause a variety of neurological disorders such as lack of muscular coordination, convulsions and coma, much lower lead levels have been associated with measurable changes in children’s mental development and behavior. These include hyperactivity; deficits in fine motor function, hand-eye coordination, and reaction time; and lowered performance on intelligence tests. Chronic lead exposure in adults can result in increased blood pressure, decreased fertility, cataracts, nerve disorders, muscle and joint pain, and memory or concentration problems.